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Derivatization reagents for GC
Purpose of derivatization
Improved volatility, better thermal stability or a lower limit of detection in GC
Prerequisite: quantitative, rapid and reproducible formation of only one derivative
Halogen atoms introduced by derivatization (e.g., trifluoroacetates) for specific detection (ECD) with the advantage of high sensitivity
Influence of elution orders and fragmentation patterns in MS by a specific derivatization

Reagents for silylation · alkylation (methylation) · acylation are available


Derivatization method development kits
  Designation / purpose Contents of the kit REF  
  Derivatization method development kit  
  which type of derivatization is best suited for
your sample (alkylation, acylation or silylation)?
2 x 1 mL each of TMSH, MSTFA, MBTFA 701952  
  Acylation kit  
  which is the proper reagent for acylation? 2 x 1 mL each of MBTFA, TFAA, MBHFBA 701950  
  Alkylation kit  
  which is the proper reagent for methylation? 3 x 1 mL each of TMSH, DMF-DMA 701951  
  Silylation kit  
  which is the proper reagent for silylation? 2 x 1 mL each of MSTFA, BSTFA, TSIM, MSHFBA 701953  
These products contain harmful substances which must be specially labeled as hazardous. For detailed information please see MSDS.


Selection guide for derivatization of important functional groups in GC
Function Method Derivative Recommended reagents
Alcohols,
Phenols
R'OH
silylation R'O – TMS BSA, MSTFA, MSHFBA, TSIM,
SILYL‑2110, SILYL-21, SILYL-1139
acylation R'O – CO – R TFAA, HFBA, MBTFA, MBHFBA
alkylation R'O – R TMSH
sterically hindered silylation R'O – TMS TSIM, BSTFA, SILYL-991
Amines
primary, secondary
silylation R' – NR" – TMS BSA, MSTFA, MSHFBA, SILYL-991
acylation R' – NR" – CO – R TFAA, HFBA, MBTFA, MBHFBA
hydrochlorides silylation R' – NR" – TMS MSTFA
Amides silylation not stable  
acylation R' – CO – NH – CO – R TFAA, MBTFA, HFBA, MBHFBA
Amino acids silylation R' – CH(NH – TMS) – CO – O – TMS BSA, BSTFA, MSTFA, MSHFBA
alkylation (a)
+ acylation (b)
R' – CH(NH – CO-R) – CO – O – R a) MeOH/TMCS, TMSH
b) TFAA, HFBA, MBTFA, MBHFBA
Carboxylic acids
(fatty acids)
silylation R’ – CO – O – TMS
susceptible to hydrolysis
BSA, MSTFA, MSHFBA, TMCS, TSIM,
SILYL-2110, SILYL-21, SILYL-1139
alkylation R’ – CO – O – R DMF-DMA, MeOH / TMCS (1 M), TMSH
salts silylation R’ – CO – O – TMS
susceptible to hydrolysis
TMCS
Carbohydrates silylation   MSTFA, TSIM, HMDS, SILYL-1139
acylation   TFAA, MBTFA
Steroids silylation   BSA, TSIM
acylation   TFAA, MBTFA, HFBA, MBHFBA
 

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